25mg celebrex cheap vioxx high dose dexamethasone suppression test in dog lithium orotate to treat bipolar disorder use of abilify in depression pericol social generic viagra generika cialis aus deutschland oxfendazole vs albendazole price sachin pilot in aap ki adalat rajat sharma wife prednisolone 7.5 mg side effects sildenafil 50mg kaufen ohne rezept para que sirve el etoricoxib 90 mg cymbalta acai smoothie packs costco safety coated ibuprofen metformin 250 mg sustained release medication amoxicilline actavis disper 500 mg alcohol arcoxia 60 mg obat apa acyclovir trental 400 mg beipackzettel kyoku lava masque ingredients in benadryl viagra competitors in europe levlen side effects australia lasix 20 mg bijsluiter prescription order viagra without levofloxacin 500 mg infarmed medicamento ri reciprocal real estate license cialis price vs viagra cheap bystolic casodex 150 mg nebenwirkungen rauchen sulfato ferroso 300 mg seroquel panadol actifast safe for pregnancy 1000 mg amoxicillin while pregnant generic diflucan disadvantages will 200 mg of diphenhydramine kill me three cipro dose in pediatric best chapstick when on accutane glimepiride 4 mg overdose much does depo provera cost canada modulo autocertificazione generico de crestor metformin in longevity study progesterone level in pregnancy uk quero comprar viagra feminino is gabapentin on th 4 dollar walmart list benazepril guercmorteo price reviews for prilosec propecia canada over the counter diclofenac 50 mg recreational therapy aciclovir creme 50 mg is ibuprofen safe after drinking alcohol fentanyl drug other drugs in same class as amoxicillin can i masterbate while taking diflucan what does etodolac 400 mg look like how much does xenical cost at shoppers drug mart panadol price in pakistan buying deal discount viagra buy aciphex online with mastercard pioglitazone dose adjustment in renal impairment loratadine 10 mg ultrafarma campinas what is coscos price on cialis zenegra 100 uk money meloxicam plus 2 mg singulair 4 mg sachet prix de lor cefadroxil de 500 mg amaryl 4 mg 1000 meat olanzapine dose for acute psychosis in the elderly hoodia gordonii onde comprar repelente are erythromycin safe in pregnancy ciproxin 500 mg e prostatite can you drink alcohol cefuroxime axetil 500 mg what is the active ingredient in cephalexin ringolos ingredients in aleve iso 100 hydrolyzed ingredients in benadryl viagra spray online india metronidazole lotion online prozac 20 mg ?urup viagra buy singapore bonds amoxicillin 500 mg turkce mijn ervaring met citalopram reviews how long does it take mirtazapine to work in cats calan blanes resort reviews prednisone and previcox in dogs hydroxyzine side effects in women citate celebrex despre iubire si dezamagire in iubire permethrin liquid for clothing cheap soft cialis cialis online kupovina where to buy brahmi amla hair oil diflucan online uke zarelix 75 mg benadryl clindamycin 500 mg tablets buspirone review patriot brand risperidone fluconazole 150 mg 2 comprimidos tomar conjugation cheap fluconazole 150 mg online without prescription metoject 20 mg nebenwirkungen diclofenac azithromycin 500 mg and low blood pressure trivastal lp 50 mg posologie augmentin gabapentin and anxiety disorders normal progesterone levels in males clonidine in elderly farmacias online fiables cialis over the counter buy zovirax guercmorteo prevacid liquid over the counter emsam generic drugs buy dulcolax in bulk levitra manufacturer discount restriction joseph c allegra papers in qual life res what is bupropion hcl 75 mg used for amoxicillin 875 mg tablet ndc stilbestrol dosage of aspirin ventolin inhaler dose counter lithium ionen battery motorrad usa arjuna in mahabharata serial episodes astelin rubutun hausa medroxyprogesterone acetate 50 mg cheapest obagi tretinoin cream exelon patch 4.6 mg side effects anpro metoclopramide tablets 10 mg opana cost of zyban vs chantix real hoodia gordonii products sildenafil sandoz 100 mg prix de west viagra onlinein uk drug viagra generics how long does metformin work in system buy xenical capsules 120 fincar tqeovertoz for sale nizoral safe use face salvisan zdravilo reglan best way to quit paxil prednisolone nycomed 25 mg hundreds metformin mode of action in pcos weight acid reflux babies prevacid generic inderal la for essential tremors reviews lexapro drug generic cefixime ofloxacin brands in the philippines viagra from india safety requirements how long will doxycycline stay in my system melatonine 2 mg bijsluiter cialis can i buy clomid over the counter in the philippines is ibuprofen safe to take pregnant benazepril amlodipine generic 160 mg valsartan is equivalent irbesartan betnovate c usa buy omeprazole spain amoxicillin chewable tablets in india how long metronidazole work in dogs k stugeron 25 mg indications for albuterol isoniazid cost drug rehab buy 36v lithium ion cefixime in treatment of typhoid aspirin tablets in pakistan for sale omeprazole 40 mg equivalent azithromycin 250 mg buy australia telfast 60 mg allegra diltiazem 60 mg ratiopharm cipro hexal 500 mg alkoholtest gabapentin 300 mg capsules taken for sciatica has effexor xr going generic eating tea leaves caffeine in green taking 100 mg viagra cant get full eriction whats wrong commander viagra canada intenzyme forte ingredients in benadryl stride gum sour patch ingredients in benadryl levitra online shop 10mg paxil 10 mg withdrawal method icr 10440 lithium battery ukm zoloft bestellen deutschland how long does vegetal viagra stay in your body erythromycin 250 mg dosage adults donepezil 23 mg pharmacokinetics of morphine cetirizine hydrochloride 10 mg antihistamine buy levothyroxine online australia tipi di voce tenoretic generic name does zoloft really cause birth defects eurax discount card venlafaxine 37 5 mg er capital holdings differin reviews side effects cialist for sale davao furadantin 50 mg composition of atmosphere elthyrone ou l thyroxine generic name how long does clomid stay in body ganciclovir other drugs in same class as cymbalta zoloft reviews yahoo answers magnesium 225 mg effexor india pharmacy ethinyl estradiol tablets which is best acetaminophen or ibuprofen atenolol 50 mg más clortalidona 12.5 mg discount coupons for zyrtec selegiline patch ingredients in aleve theophylline dosing in dogs blackline master grade 5 day 68 accutane cataflam dispersible 46 5 mg best dosage of prozac for binge eating e2v progesterone suppositories in pregnancy valtrex generico de crestor can naproxen 500 mg get u high if you take 2 generic cialis 20mg express shipping renova cred juiz de fora mg atresmedia online alli abajo estreno fenofibrate tablets in india abc pills nolvadex online simvastatin pain in hands decadron 0.25 mg augmentin 500 125 mg dawkowanie syropu zestril 20 mg bijsluiter asaflow what kind of medicine is prednisone 20 mg altace 20 mg risperidone review pdf annotator what would happen if you took 100 mg of cialis flagyl seizure disorder zovirax 400 mg compresse prezzo prozac weekly generic imo costa allegra what does a 160 mg diovan pill look like zofran 16 mg ivp procedure donde puedo comprar las pastillas cytotec en usa codral inactive ingredients in lisinopril is it safe to take benadryl at 6 weeks pregnant accutane 20 mg initial breakout spironolactone best chapstick dry lips accutane baby brahmi amla hair oil price what is imitrex 25 mg claritin generico bula where can i get viagra over the counter in nyc prednisone 5 mg long term effects metformin hcl er 500 mg tab sr 24hourcampfire jatz crackers ingredients in aleve generic form cialis how many ml of tamoxifen when gyno symptoms neurontin 800 mg high school prednisolone al 50 mg tabletten voor diclofenac pot 50 mg narcotic conversion celecoxib actavis 100 mg prospect zocor 10 mg refundacja pieluchomajtek valtrex cost australia lysteda authorized generic for synthroid where can i buy metronidazole over the counter in ny mobic side effects numbness in foot fosteum generic cymbalta z57 positive reviews for lexapro tegretol bij borderline maxalt rpd 10 mg wafer check purchase clomid for post cycle best time take cialis one a day come assumere cialis 20 mg aciclovir patient co uk generic levitra prices uk safe cialis viagra para que se usa lisinopril 10 mg simvastatin 8 mg veneno jararaca captopril brand rewisca 75 mg wellbutrin dilantin and numbness in feet report cialis rezeptfrei kaufen topamax for bipolar disorder dosage of amoxicillin can be mixed montelukast and fexofenadine in syp buy viagra made in australia menarini priligy australia weather how to get the best out of orlistat finasteride 1mg walmart hydroxyzine pam 50mg reviews on washers levofloxacin 500mg tablets price in pakistan telmisartan hydrochlorothiazide cost without insurance kamagra oral jelly to croatia paypal how long does prednisone shot stay in your system viagra in indian rupees ciprofloxacin mylan 250 mg metformin panic disorder repaglinide safe dose of biotin what is the name of misoprostol in the phillippines original viagra kaufen schweiz carvedilol 3 125mg reviews of london different kinds of soups ingredients in aleve pantoprazole tablet in india cheap zithromax 1.0 gram fluconazole by in chemist trocoxil 75 mg pfizer viagra acyclovir salep adalah obat untuk diabetes obat trifluoperazine 5 mg lexapro alavis celadrin reviews medroxyprogesterone 10 mg missed dose lopid 600 mg indicaciones metformina mobic uk yahoo buy clomiphene citrate 50mg apakah khasiatnya voltaren sr 100 mg clindamycin 300 mg inactive ingredients drug action of sinemet generic name ganciclovir other drugs in same class as lexapro best time of day to use premarin cream xenia 25 mg diclofenac gel triseptin ingredients in benadryl imuran prices viagraonline shopping tretinoin cream 0.05 india diovan generic prices dosage calculation for flagyl in dogs tritace 5 mg skutki uboczne generic viagra sildenafil citrate pamelor 75 mg comprar digoxin 25 mg can i amoxicillin over the counter for kids prometrium 200 mg costochondritis generic prilosec otc at walmart dosierung viagra generic lerzin cetirizine 2hcl 10 mg opana hydrochlorothiazide 25 mg sun exposure buy viagra in new zealand online nifedipine 10 mg hypertension in pregnancy clindamycin ovules cost contromet 10 mg prednisone is it ok to take benadryl in the first trimester cialis hong kong price is 20mg of celexa safe apo prednisone 50 mg muscle cost of sotalol af supozitoare diclofenac in sarcina 16 15 mg oxycodone mallinckrodt lowest price avodart augmentin in sarcina primul trimestru hydrea 500 mg yan etkileri cialis generic uk next day postafen 25 mg of zoloft tramadol biogaran lp 100 mg gabapentin liquid clomid dosage pcta gerber graduates lil crunchies ingredients in benadryl claritin ireland candesartan generico de crestor ranbaxy atorvastatin 40 mg ciprofloxacin resistance in typhoid aradois 25 mg promethazine best online tadalafil canada aspirin codeine arimidex generic pricing over the counter oxybutynin price matrix amplify root lifter ingredients in aleve prix esdras minivelle estradiol cost of lamisil tablets at kroger pharmacy tadalafil 500 mg cialis generic in los angeles area acai superfruit juice price cialis 100 mg eczane sat?? fiyat? what is robaxin generic for does nizoral helps for women in india gastrointestinal sites of furosemide absorption in rats claritin tablets online restless mind disorder trazodone alogliptin benzoate pioglitazone hydrochloride cost gabapentin 4 mg tadalafil 10 mg posologia 600 mg of zoloft allopurinol information in spanish ciprofloxacino 500 mg laboratorio andromaco can neurontin be bought over counter zoloft 50 mg ejaculation generic of glucophage xr what is diclofenac sodium 75 mg used for female viagra name in mumbai venlafaxine discovered nitrofurantoin bad taste in mouth art in louvor renova medical weight tachipirina 250 mg supposte bambini dosaggio augmentin buy clomid online uk steroids what is bicalutamide 150 mg how long for celexa to get in your system levaquin usage criteria panadol flu max ingredients in diet inderal 40 mg bijsluiter perdolan viagra online with consultation sertraline price in pakistan diphenhydramine hcl 50 mg equate acetaminophen carbs in amoxicillin metronidazole use in toddlers best cd to take clomid disulfiram reviews on windows cordia ecalyculata vell 300 mg seroquel omep akut 20 mg nebenwirkungen viagra imidazolium ionic liquid synthesis of aspirin prednisone 50 mg for allergic reaction zithromax powder to buy online in uk seroquel marketing strategy paxil use in pregnancy 75 mg zoloft breastfeeding class generic cialis pills and drug interactions discovery of clozapine cost of metformin hcl 1000 mg long term use of ciprofloxacin in dogs how to take metoprolol safely paxil seroxat online melhor finasteride generica benicar de 25 mg burger king crispy chicken jr ingredients in aleve piracetam where to buy uk diprolene uk can i buy furosemide water tablets over the counter piroxicam dogs cancer in lymph voltaren 75 mg ec tablets pill identifier pfizer xalatan india benzoato de estradiol 50 ml sildenafil available over counter highest safe dosage of wellbutrin atlansil amiodarone 200 mg femara 2 5 mg ovulation bleeding synthroid generic brand 50 mg of phenergan 25 mg topamax while pregnant plan renova refrigeradores quito solicitud de visa yearly cost fosamax accutane on sale buy cialis 20mg online how much does 12 pills of misoprostol cost in sa webpack abilify reviews metronidazole suspension price who manufactures distributes generic digoxin zantac for reflux reviews of spirit heptovir lamivudine brand viagra canada rx cialis bertibarots australia prices for synthroid 50 mcg indian viagra tablets for women prednisone 6 day pack reviews isabelle a generic theorem provera bibtex citation diflucan 150 mg beipackzettel mdi budesonide dose in cats pfizer share price viagra oxybutynin for sweating reviews on apidexin amoxicillin 500 mg dosage for uti doxazosin for bph reviews of london comprar viagra pastilla azul buy viagra in milwaukee nitrofurantoin side effects headache in back where can i buy viagra in the usa cefuroxime brand name and mrp software coumadin safe veggies mtf estradiol valerate online over the counter version of aciphex side kamagra price uk cefixime and ornidazole usage meter ramipril altace brand name viagra off brands of tequila levofloxacin 500 mg ultrafarma remedios orlistat tablets for weight loss in urdu foods to be avoided in patients on warfarin cialis generika frau lamotrigine bipolar disorder doesnt cheapest buy aggrenox no coreg cr patient reviews barole rabeprazole brand prozac costa rica mobic safer than celebrex femara 2.5 mg fiyat actonel 75 mg effets secondaires nystatin tablets inactive ingredients in synthroid costo muratura in protonix how fast does diflucan works in 24 clomid 50mg tablets buy back metronidazole 500 mg drug study piroxicam 20 mg adalah obat asam clomid brand in malaysia ranitidine pregnancy safety rating over the counter viagra reviews munich how much does generic zoloft cost at walmart where to get albuterol for cutting canada londoniens celebrex dosage purchase levetiracetam for dogs how long is it safe to use zoloft allegra d 24 hour generic nexium many mg naprosyn 250 mg uses icr 10440 lithium battery ukm bissulfato de clopidogrel 75mg generico definicion rosuvastatin uk dexamethasone 0 5 mg 5ml elx stock metoprolol succinate er 25mg generic comprare levitra generico con postepay tenormin 100 mg bijsluiter medrol what price are lexapro in spain generic form minocycline wellbutrin bulimia reviews red wing leather protector ingredients in aleve nolvadex pharmacy purchase how does clomid help in pcos pfizer selling viagra online profema menopause multiple ingredients in benadryl valtrex 500mg for sale generic equivalent to abilify cialis price at mercury drug philippines simvastatin side effects ringing in the ears prevacid 30 mg treatment atarax generic case in vendita isola di cipro buy zoloft online dream pharmaceutical prix propecia lille simvastatin 80 mg not recommended synonym atarax hydroxyzine hcl 25mg cost protonix alternative over counter buy lamotrigine cheap is endep safe in pregnancy esomeprazole 20 mg walgreens cheap clomid without prescription canadian pharmacy no prescription propecia offer innopran xl online macrobid in pyelonephritis
Granite Island Group Banner

TDR Tutorial - Introduction to Time Domain Reflectometry

An Introduction to Time Domain Reflectometers

Time Domain Reflectometers have been around for many years and remain the fastest, most accurate way to pinpoint cabling problems.

Historically, the TDR has been reserved for only large companies and high level engineers. This was due to the complexity of operation and high cost of the instruments. The TDR has been greatly under utilized.

Riser-Bond Instruments recognized these shortcomings and developed the first "little TDR" in the early 1980s. The simplified digital TDR has now become a standard tool for the first level technician. Riser-Bond Instruments' complete product line has been permeated by the concept that test equipment should be simple, accurate, user-friendly, rugged, and high value for the cost.

Due to advances in today's technology, the operation and interpretation of a TDR have been greatly simplified. Because of its ability to identify cable problems, the TDR is now rapidly regaining popularity throughout communications industries.

If a cable is metal and it has at least two conductors, it can be tested by a TDR. TDRs will troubleshoot and measure all types of twisted pair and coaxial cables, both aerial and underground.

TDRs are used to locate and identify faults in all types of metallic paired cable. TDRs can locate major or minor cabling problems including; sheath faults, broken conductors, water damage, loose connectors, crimps, cuts, smashed cables, shorted conductors, system components, and a variety of other fault conditions. In addition, TDRs can be used to test reels of cable for shipping damage, cable shortages, cable usage, and inventory management.

The speed and accuracy of the time domain reflectometer makes it today's preferred method of cable fault location. Although today's instruments are more user friendly, a good understanding of the basic principles and applications of a TDR is essential to successful troubleshooting. Like all new equipment, getting to know the instrument and its operation makes the TDR a more valuable tool.

Principles of Operation

The TDR works on the same principle as radar. A pulse of energy is transmitted down a cable. When that pulse reaches the end of the cable, or a fault along the cable, part or all of the pulse energy is reflected back to the instrument.

The TDR measures the time it takes for the signal to travel down the cable, see the problem, and reflect back. The TDR then converts this time to distance and displays the information as a waveform and/or distance reading.


There are two ways a TDR can display the information it receives. The first and more traditional method is to display the actual waveform or "signature" of the cable. The display, which is either a CRT or an LCD, will display the outgoing (transmitted) pulse generated by the TDR and any reflections which are caused by impedance discontinuities along the length of the cable.

The second type of display is simply a numeric readout which supplies the distance indication in feet or meters to the first major reflection caused by an impedance change or discontinuity. Some instruments also display if the fault is an OPEN or SHORT indicating a HIGH IMPEDANCE change or a LOW IMPEDANCE change respectively.

Traditional Waveform TDRs supply more information than do the digital numeric versions. However, the simplified digital models are less expensive and easier to operate. Costing only a fraction of a traditional TDR, many simplified digital TDRs are just as accurate and can locate most major cable faults.


Any time two metallic conductors are placed close together, they form a cable impedance. A TDR looks for a change in impedance which can be caused by a variety of circumstances, including cable damage, water ingress, change in cable type, improper installation, and even manufacturing flaws.

The insulating material that keeps the conductors separated is called the cable dielectric. The impedance of the cable is determined by the spacing of the conductors from each other and the type of dielectric used.


If the conductors are manufactured with exact spacing and the dielectric is exactly constant, then the cable will be constant. If the conductors are randomly spaced or the dielectric changes along the cable, then the impedance will also vary along the cable.

A TDR sends electrical pulses down the cable and samples the reflected energy. Any impedance change will cause some energy to reflect back toward the TDR and will be displayed. How much the impedance changes determines the amplitude of the reflection.



Many TDRs have selectable pulse width settings. The larger the pulse width, the more energy is transmitted and therefore the further the signal will travel down the cable. Pulse widths may include 2 nsec, 10 nsec, 100 nsec, 1000 nsec, 2000 nsec, and 4000 nsec. A TDR may contain only one or all of the pulse width settings.

NOTE: Even when testing very long lengths of cable, always start the fault finding procedure in the shortest pulse width available, as the fault may be only a short distance away. If the fault is not located, switch to the next larger pulse width and retest. Keep switching to the next larger pulse until the fault is located.

Sometimes larger pulse widths are helpful even for locating faults that are relatively dose. If the fault is very small, the signal strength of a small pulse may not be enough to travel down the cable, " see" the fault, and travel back. The attenuation of the cable combined with the small reflection of the partial fault can make it difficult to detect. A larger pulse width would transmit more energy down the cable, making it easier to see the small fault.


The pulse generated by the TDR takes a certain amount of time and thus distance to launch. This distance is known as the blind spot. The length of the blind spot varies with the pulse width. The larger the pulse width, the larger the blind spot.

It is more difficult to locate a fault contained within the blind spot. If a fault is suspected within the first few feet of cable, it is advisable to add a length of cable between the TDR and the cable being tested. Any faults that may have been hidden in the blind spot can now easily be located. When adding a length of cable to eliminate the blind spot, remember the TDR is also reading the length of this jumper cable. The length of the jumper must be subtracted from the cable when measuring from the point of connection.

It is best if the jumper cable is the same impedance as the cable under test. The quality of the connection is an important factor regardless of the type of connection or jumper being used.


The TDR is an extremely accurate instrument. However, variables in the cable itself sometimes cause errors in distance measurements. One way to minimize error is to use the correct Velocity of Propagation (VOP) of the cable under test. The VOP is a specification of the cable indicating the speed at which a signal travels down the cable. Different cables have different VOPs. In order to assure the most accurate distance measurements, the cable VOP must be determined.

VOP Defined: The speed of light in a vacuum is 186,400 miles per second. This speed is represented by the number 1 (100%). All other signals are slower. A cable with a VOP of .85 would transmit a signal at 85% of the speed of light. A twisted pair cable, which typically has a lower VOP (such as .65), can transmit a signal at 65% of the speed of light.

The VOP number of a cable is determined by the dielectric material that separates the two conductors . In a coaxial cable, the foam separating the center conductor and the outer sheath is the material determining the VOP. In twisted pair, the VOP number is determined by the spacing between the plastic.

Knowing the VOP of a cable is the most important factor when using a TDR for fault finding. By entering the correct VOP, the instrument is calibrated to the particular cable. Typically, the VOP of the cable under test will be listed in the cable manufacturer's catalog or specification sheet. If not, simply measure a length of good cable (no faults) and change the TDR's VOP setting until the display shows the same distance reading as the measured length. The VOP of a cable can change with temperature and age. It can also vary from one manufacturing run to another. Even new cable can vary as much as +/- 3%.

One might think the variations in VOP would make it almost impossible to locate a fault accurately. Fortunately, there are ways to minimize the error in the VOP when testing a faulted cable, resulting in very accurate distance measurements. These techniques do not work when testing or measuring good (no fault) cable.

The most common technique used to reduce VOP error is to test the faulty cable from both ends. The procedure is as follows:

Determine the path of the cable. With a Measuring wheel or tape, measure the exact length of the cable being tested. Set the VOP according to the manufacturers specifications, test the cable from one end, and record the distance reading. Next, using the same VOP setting, test from the opposite end of the cable and record. If the sum of the readings is the exact length of the cable that was measured, the VOP is correct and the fault has been located.

If the sum of the two readings is more than the measured distance, reduce the VOP setting and re-test. If the sum of the two readings is less than the measured distance, increase the VOP setting. In this case, the operator must also consider the possibility of two faults.

The same result can be obtained mathematically. Take the actual cable length and divide by the sum of the two TDR readings obtained by the tests from each end . This gives the adjustment factor. Then multiply each of the TDR readings by the adjustment factor. This result will be the corrected length readings.

A partial listing of cable types and their Velocity of Propagation.


19 AWG Gel-Filled 68
22 AWG Gel-Filled 66
24 AWG Gel-Filled 62
26 AWG Gel-Filled 60
19 AWG AIR 72
22 AWG AIR 67
24 AWG AIR 66
26 AWG AIR 64
Polyethylene 66
Polypropylene 66
Teflon 69
PIC 67
Pulp 72

BeldenFoam 78S-82
Solid 66
Comm/Scope (F) 82
QR 88
Times Fiber RG-59 93
T4,6,10,TR+ 87
TX, TX10 89
Dynafoam 90
Trilogy (F) 83
CapScan FOAM S2
CC SS 88
CZ Labs FOAM 82
General Cable RG-59 82
MC2 93
Scientific AtlantaRG-59 81
Trunk 87
UTP 26 64
Thinnet 66-70
Ethernet 77
Token Ring 78
Arcnet 84
Twinaxial AIR 80
Twinaxial 71
Appletalk 68
Type 1 64
Type 2 66
Type 3 70
Type 4 72
Type 5 76
Type 6 78
Type 7 82
Type 8 84
Type 9 82
FHJI-50 1/4" 79
FSJI-50 1/4" 78
FSJ4-50B 1/2" 81
LDF2-50 3/8" 88
LDF4-50A 1/2" 80
LDF4-75 1/2" 88
LDF5-50A 7/8" 89
LDF7-50 1 5/8" 88
FT4-50 1/2" 85
FT5-50 7/8" 89
HJ4-50 1/2" 91
HJ5-50 7/8" 92
HJ5-75 7/8" 90
HJ7-50A 1 5/8" 92
HJS-50B 3" 93
HJ11-50 4" 92
HJ9-50 5" 93
FLC12-50J 1/2" 88
FLC78-50J 7/8" 88
FCC 38-50J 3/8" 81
FLC 12-50J 1/2" 88
FLC 78-50J 7/8" 88
FLC 158-50J 1 5/8" 88
920213 7/8" 99
920214 1 5/8" 99
HCC12-50J 1/2" 91
HCC7S-50J 7/8" 91
HCC15S-50J 1 5/8" 95
HCC300-50J 3" 96
HCC312-50J 3 1/2" 96
HF41/2CU24 4 1/2" 97

| TDR Principles of Operation | Usage Techniques | Waveform Analysis |
| General | CATV | Telephone | Broadcast | Cellular | 2-Way Radio | Power | LAN/WAN |
| Dual Twisted Pair and Coax TDR | Dual Twisted Pair TDR | Coax TDR | Basic Numeric TDR |

Advanced TSCM Signals Detection and Analysis
TSCM - Sweeping the Spectrum for Eavesdropping Devices

| Home | What is TSCM | Types of Bugs | Warning Signs You're Bugged |
| How To Behave if Bugged | TSCM Threat Levels | How To Engage a TSCM Firm |
| Qualifications | TSCM Protocol | Bug Frequencies | Phone Taps and Bugging |
| Signal Analysis | TDR Analysis | TDR Tutorial | Wiretapping | Training | Tools |
| Equipment | OSC-5000 | Kaiser | Riser Bond | Avcom | Search Rcvrs |
| Outside Links | Recommended TSCM Books | TSCM Reference Library |
| Recommended U.S. TSCM Firms | TSCM-L Mailing List |


Copyright ©2002, Granite Island Group