is phenergan shot safe during pregnancy where to cut in cialis in half how long does gabapentin take to kick in for anxiety should buy cialis online cetirizine cost walgreens is prozac used for panic disorder premarin 0.45 mg tabs naproxen usage and side effects lariam generic zofran iv safe dosage cialis vendors in delhi buy atomoxetine hydrochloride thong tin ve thuoc remeron 30 mg can i drop fluoxetine for 40 mg to 20mg 120 mg iv lasix do you need a prescription for nolvadex in uk dapoxetine 30 mg generic viagra pharmacy reviews order viagra pill indomethacin 25 mg caps specialist ranks in army what price are singulair chew tablets 4mg stopping atorvastatin 10 mg where can i get viagra in manchester ibuprofen 200 mg how many a day omeprazole sold canada cialis de 0,5 mg heb brand loratadine zantac 150 mg tablet side effects levothroid dergboadre canada albuterol inhaler for sale online no prescription how much does walmart charge for zithromax costo del cialis en mexico what is indapamide used for in humans en ucuz cialis 5 mg fiyat? magnus 50 mg sildenafil como tomarlo cialis 10 mg 4 comprimidos precio metronidazole gel reviews where to buy amitriptyline tablets venlafaxine retard 150 mg bijsluiter s adalat papers prevalence in nephron j shaw atorvastatin generic companies viagra in tucson az is it safe to take cialis and tylenol lexapro reviews tired generic for viagra available in united states cost of diflucan at walgreens cephalexin rilexine 150 mg neurontin 400 mg capsule nexium generico existe how long does azithromycin stay in body para que enfermedades se usa el ciprofloxacino hydroxyzine 10 mg for anxiety baclofen 20 mg. street value canada metronidazole pills 500mg chloramphenicol powder price generic version of hyzaar cialis dosage 10 mg not working baclofen usage nitroglycerin patches prices how to order phenergan online how much rupees amoxicillin 500 gm in india what is the street price of cialis can i drink with generic cialis 75 mg tadalafil guna salep lamisil zusammensetzung von abilify anafranil whartisthebestin uses oxytrol over the counter canada buy omeprazole 10mg tablets ran atenolol 100 mg clopidogrel generika 75 mg buy ciprofloxacin otitis externa pyridium over counter canada benazepril 40 mg en espanol para que sirve el medicamento micardis 40 mg buy viagra online by the pill doxepin medsafe is there a generic for amlodipine benazepril manfaat obat lisinopril 10 mg pasos para usar cytotec levothyroxine overdose in dogs how much cost viagra in india skelaxin 800 mg with ibuprofen side effects of glimepiride 1 mg cialis per rechnung kaufen health canada warning re domperidone paxil generic problems can you half a quetiapine xr 300 mg tablet prednisone for skin allergy in dogs fexofenadine european doses precio de clopidogrel cinfa 75 mg imuran 50 mg precio en colombia dexamethasone in inner ear comprar viagra generico contrareembolso em portugal meloxicam biogaran 7.5 mg abilify pharmacy canada tizanidine 2 mg uses take fluconazole 150 mg what is cipro used for and how long in system cialis for bph user reviews zyloprim australia crestor rosuvastatina 5 mg precio ibuprofen cf 600 mg amaryllis bulbs in wax viagra in icu buy priligy greece como se toma cialis de 20 mg sucralfate safe dogs rugby meclizine 25 mg prevacid nexium best 50 to 100 mg zoloft clopidogrel expiration canada estradiol levels for postmenopausal women ciproxine 500 mg indication will doxycycline show up in a drug test generic viagras cipal vardenafil free airmail shipping buy obat gabexal 300 mg gabapentin can you get misoprostol in canada cheaper than imitrex flagyl 400 mg price dubai mechanism of action of montelukast in asthma zetia prices in canada generic name for lioresal dosis acyclovir 400 mg herpes zoster bangladeshi brand viagra tablets bars in the viagra triangle chicago donde comprar isotretinoina en mexico online pharmacy new zealand furosemide injectable best price daily cialis atenolol brand generic name how much it cost to get azithromycin 4 500mg kaiser switching to generic viagra amlodipine in angina shoppers drug mart cialis in ottawa divalproex 500 mg para que sirve phenazopyridine 200 mg while breastfeeding doxycycline cause joint pain in dogs fluconazole for dogs for sale thuoc naproxen sodium tablets 220 mg diclofenac sodium 75 mg and tylenol sumycin bertibarots cost domperidone medsafe data sheet manufacturers of furosemide in india clotrimazole cream pregnancy safety cipro 500 mg chlamydia buy revia without a prescription generic wellbutrin sr problems clindamycin safe while breastfeeding cialis 50 mg pills benadryl liquid pill is it safe to take cialis with p6 cellucor pyridium available australia effects of spironolactone in women lamisil costo de las pastillas en colombia lamictal order online how to order clomid online is clomid safe after depo what is zovirax know as in france zithromax 500 mg cpt code estradiol oral brand names effects of metronidazole in dogs generic inderal online metoprolol generic problems buy viagra online with no prescription generic viagra why no cialis in china olanzapine generic brand amitriptyline hcl side effects in spanish what can i take with naproxen 500 mg comprar viagra cordoba argentina what does bupropion sr 150 mg look like nexium 20 mg presentacion cialis dosage 20mg canadian cialis low price bay candesartan solubility in water reviews of clomiphene 50 mg generic viagra best supplier pbs lipitor price clomipramine manufacturer in india ondansetron 8 mg pregnant where to buy viagra in bangladesh cialis tablets in pakistan iver 3 ivermectina 3 mg zyprexa in canada trazodone epocrates online micardis 80 prix tunisie side effects of benadryl in men cataflam comprimido como usar can a 1yr old take acyclovir 200 mg what is the brand name for dexamethasone reliable place buy viagra online norvasc generic date levaquin 750 mg para que sirve is naproxen 500 mg stronger than tramadol generic flagyl eciwlcodkedefe taking 160 mg of domperidone zyprexa velotabquanto costa singulair history in other countries nortriptyline 10 mg and alcohol augmentin generic price philippines tamsulosin price at rite aid side effects of ranitidine in adults naprelan usage can you take 2 dulcolax suppositories in one day meloxicam 15 mg farmacias similares how to buy doxycycline hyclate cytotec como usarse modelo de solicitud de nulidad de actos procesales oracea doxycycline 40 mg comprar hidrocloruro de dapoxetine order cymbalta samples cost for lamisil 2g zithromax cost glyburide metformin 500 mg online chemist australia viagra medicine sildenafil farmindustria in peru was kosten viagra in ägypten cost of cymbalta 60 mg without insurance donde comprar dutasteride en espa?a how to get misoprostol in canada side effects voltaren 50 mg mometasone furoate ointment sale will 50 mg of seroquel make me overdose directions for taking prednisone 20 mg sohard viagra review clomid and muscle growth in men venlafaxine in epilepsy viagra cost chennai best days start taking clomid price ciprofloxacin 500mg usa cialis patent expiry date europe ema what is the best way to taper off prednisone good lexapro reviews can you eat after taking quetiapine 300 mg sildenafil 20 mg tablet dosing ranitidine 75 mg kruidvat elavil reviews pain viagra professional 100mg price kamagra im laden kaufen clindamycin renal safety splitting cialis in them generic vardenafil 10 mg order motrin ib 300 mg over the counter equivalent for singulair compare prices lipitor walk in viagra clinic generic form trazodone zyprexa in australia nizoral containing shampoo in india clindamycin for fluid in ears flagyl 400 mg for gum infection is amoxicillin clavulanate safe atorvastatin in patients with type 2 diabetes cheap erythromycin whartisthebestin spironolactone 25mg reviews uses of clomid and vitamin e in pcos glucophage 850 mg side effect can you crush azithromycin 250 mg treatment imipramine in panic disorder omnicef 125 mg dosage prescription zantac 150 mg amaryl price uk web pharma org buy viagra usa safe dose range of amoxicillin is ranitidine safe for babies how many mgs of prednisone take for weak muscle shot want to buy kamagra in amsterdam what mg is prilosec otc how many mg in prescription strength ibuprofen does dexamethasone cause diarrhea in dogs cost of colcrys at walmart donde puedo comprar las pastillas cytotec en chile cialis from cvs price woolworths online panadol topamax bipolar disorder dosage 1800 mg clindamycin bad is 10 mg prednisone viagra australia online sale anavar benadryl safety during breastfeeding is amitriptyline hcl 50 mg tab a narcotic zyrtec brand name obat cialis 10 mg clomid injection prices onde comprar o medicamento cytotec verapamil 240 mg. migraine lexapro 40 mg daily dose prix du cialis 2.5 reciprocity with other states for pt license baclofen in infants which is cheaper xenical or alli metronidazole equivalent over counter is 20mg of cetirizine safe taking sustanon 250 mg with finasteride socialist party in sabah metronidazole syrup generic rates singulair 5 mg efectos secundarios lisinopril hctz 20 12.5 mg incontinence do i need prescription to buy ibuprofen how long does metoprolol er stay in system azithromycin 2 mg single dose how to buy cytotec without prescription is zantac safe for bones metformin in pregnancy pdf harga diflucan 150 mg xenical 120 mg kapseln rezeptfrei generic abilify 5mg ingredients in zantac 150 best way to take arimidex zovirax 50 mg creme singulair 4mg granules cost fluconazole how long in body cephalexin interactions in dogs harga carbamazepine 200 mg para que sirve keflex de 500 mg buy low cost generic cialis prilosec 20 mg cpdr oxcarbazepine generic price clomid success in the first month augmentin 1000 mg alkol kullan?m? prednisolone in cats side effects is it safe to take clomid if you already ovulate wellbutrin name brand generic viagra for women in malta arret risperdal 1 mg seroquel in liquid tab warfarin trade name in pak greenstone amoxicillin 875 mg where to find nitroglycerin charge in bioshock pamelor whartisthebestin overnight cheap viagra no perscription fast delivery proventil off market is zofran over the counter medication benadryl pregnancy safety rating wanna buy viagra in london meloxicam metocarbamol costo side effects of amoxillin in 6wk old baby safe take 300 mg fluconazole buy canadian cialis benadryl tablets for dogs australia amiodarone use in iodine allergic patients celexa chemistry will taking four daily cialis equal one 20 mg 36 hr orlistat donde comprar en colombia diovan 320 mg forte nebenwirkungen genericviagra org choice ibuprofen in cold prednisone 50 mg tablet buspar 10 10 mg 30 comprimidos phenazopyridine hcl 95 mg dosage lansoprazole capsules of enteric coated granules 30 mg accutane 10 mg alternate days side effects losartan drug prices brands of losartan accutane tqeovertoz australia buy generic doxazosin ciprofloxacin eye drop price acquistare cialis in farmacia senza ricetta dexamethasone in horses side effects para sirve magnus sildenafil 50 mg topamax nighttime eating disorder where can buy misoprostol cialis le prix en pharmacie zydus tamsulosin hcl reviews acyclovir online price cephalexin 500 mg capsule for sinus infection best men viagra cream when is the best tim to take cialis liquid analog of sildenafil claritin discount doxycycline oral cost qual o generico do cataflam pbs price lipitor amoxicillin allergic reaction in infants carbamazepine xr 200 mg tablet furosemide for dogs without prescription in uk lipitor 20mg generic composition how long does clomipramine stay in the body is proscar fake in tijuana 37 chanel road artane dublin 5 cialis comprar en argentina digoxin in pediatric heart failure indication albuterol nombre generico y comercial topiramate price walmart safety on clomid terbinafine hcl 250 mg tablet for cats risperdal 1 mg iç buy cheap atorvastatin how many mg of metformin should i take propecia whartisthebestin cost puedo comprar ventolin sin receta is 875 mg of amoxicillin too much cost of cialis tadalafil in australia 5 mls propecia ausland bestellen farmakologi metformin 500 mg how to purchase original nolvadex tamoxifen maximum safe dose levitra and cialis aricept 23 mg generic buy lisinopril 40 mg tablet lisinopril 10 mg side effects like rashes lexapro 10 mg for anxiety losartan potassium walmart price executives taking escitalopram in delhi tadalafil 5mg best price does generic viagra works online pharmacy prescription viagra best place to buy online viagra paypal what does meclizine 25 mg treat india cialis difference between 5mg propecia and 1 mg alesse equivalent in uk is it safe to use cialis atomoxetine hydrochloride online clindamycin hcl 300 mg strep prix portable mobicarte generico depo provera 150mg can i buy prednisone online amlodipine 10 mg greenstone comprar viagra em espanha wellbutrin xl 150 mg coupons viagra price in brazil kegunaan costil domperidone donde comprar femara en mexico claritin eye drops over the counter causas del misoprostol lifestyle sports artane castle dublin doxycycline for lyme disease in adults do i need a prescription to buy doxycycline where can i get a viagra in johannesburg problems with generic seroquel cost of methotrexate canada is viagra 800 safe what is best time of day to take clomid safety of oral acyclovir in toddlers donde comprar cytotec en santiago safe drink alcohol while taking prozac how mush dose levitra cost is zoloft safe in early pregnancy order lipitor in canada cyclophosphamide toxicity in mice para se usa medicamento provera viagra tablet available in chennai amlodipine besylate 10 mg en español doxycycline hyclate in room temperature herbal viagra available in kerala what ppl say about metronidazole 400 mg one twice a day vermox in malaysia effexor 200 mg buy premarin cream canada is it safe to take tramadol and motrin buy viagra ho chi minh city can you zithromax in a bali clinic simvastatin 40 mg erectile dysfunction buy lasix online no rx needed generic name of prometrium permethrin cream safe for pregnant women is it safe to take ibuprofen and vicodin together doxycycline gel uk cytotec tabletten bestellen xenical generico preços metformin hcl er 500 mg tablets using clotrimazole pessary in pregnancy nifedipine drug in pregnancy lamictal 100 mg engorda atorvastatin 10 mg generic zyrtec in the elderly atorvastatin 10 mg wiki usa viagra 4000 pamelor causa taquicardia risperdal 2 ml allegra printing warsaw indiana socialism canada australia norway azithromycin jub 500 mg benadryl costo mexico ciprofloxacin hcl user reviews can you cut a prilosec in half is it safe to buy generic levitra how many 5 mg cialis are safe to take crestor 5 mg bula benadryl cream philippine price kamagra jellies uk prospect amaryl 4 mg cefdinir in infants viagra generico resolve finasteride tablet in bangladesh buy least expensive propecia when was propranolol discovered where can i buy benadryl allergy skin cream benadryl for dogs pills or liquid viagra kaufen klagenfurt tacrolimus eye drops for dogs australia how much is viagra in joburg is it safe to buy generic propecia online compra cialis paypal does ivermectin kill hookworms in humans suhagra 100 kaufen amoxicillin fast uk delivery is antivert safe during pregnancy drugs carvedilol 25 mg
Granite Island Group Banner

TDR Tutorial - Introduction to Time Domain Reflectometry

An Introduction to Time Domain Reflectometers

Time Domain Reflectometers have been around for many years and remain the fastest, most accurate way to pinpoint cabling problems.

Historically, the TDR has been reserved for only large companies and high level engineers. This was due to the complexity of operation and high cost of the instruments. The TDR has been greatly under utilized.

Riser-Bond Instruments recognized these shortcomings and developed the first "little TDR" in the early 1980s. The simplified digital TDR has now become a standard tool for the first level technician. Riser-Bond Instruments' complete product line has been permeated by the concept that test equipment should be simple, accurate, user-friendly, rugged, and high value for the cost.

Due to advances in today's technology, the operation and interpretation of a TDR have been greatly simplified. Because of its ability to identify cable problems, the TDR is now rapidly regaining popularity throughout communications industries.

If a cable is metal and it has at least two conductors, it can be tested by a TDR. TDRs will troubleshoot and measure all types of twisted pair and coaxial cables, both aerial and underground.

TDRs are used to locate and identify faults in all types of metallic paired cable. TDRs can locate major or minor cabling problems including; sheath faults, broken conductors, water damage, loose connectors, crimps, cuts, smashed cables, shorted conductors, system components, and a variety of other fault conditions. In addition, TDRs can be used to test reels of cable for shipping damage, cable shortages, cable usage, and inventory management.

The speed and accuracy of the time domain reflectometer makes it today's preferred method of cable fault location. Although today's instruments are more user friendly, a good understanding of the basic principles and applications of a TDR is essential to successful troubleshooting. Like all new equipment, getting to know the instrument and its operation makes the TDR a more valuable tool.

Principles of Operation

The TDR works on the same principle as radar. A pulse of energy is transmitted down a cable. When that pulse reaches the end of the cable, or a fault along the cable, part or all of the pulse energy is reflected back to the instrument.

The TDR measures the time it takes for the signal to travel down the cable, see the problem, and reflect back. The TDR then converts this time to distance and displays the information as a waveform and/or distance reading.


There are two ways a TDR can display the information it receives. The first and more traditional method is to display the actual waveform or "signature" of the cable. The display, which is either a CRT or an LCD, will display the outgoing (transmitted) pulse generated by the TDR and any reflections which are caused by impedance discontinuities along the length of the cable.

The second type of display is simply a numeric readout which supplies the distance indication in feet or meters to the first major reflection caused by an impedance change or discontinuity. Some instruments also display if the fault is an OPEN or SHORT indicating a HIGH IMPEDANCE change or a LOW IMPEDANCE change respectively.

Traditional Waveform TDRs supply more information than do the digital numeric versions. However, the simplified digital models are less expensive and easier to operate. Costing only a fraction of a traditional TDR, many simplified digital TDRs are just as accurate and can locate most major cable faults.


Any time two metallic conductors are placed close together, they form a cable impedance. A TDR looks for a change in impedance which can be caused by a variety of circumstances, including cable damage, water ingress, change in cable type, improper installation, and even manufacturing flaws.

The insulating material that keeps the conductors separated is called the cable dielectric. The impedance of the cable is determined by the spacing of the conductors from each other and the type of dielectric used.


If the conductors are manufactured with exact spacing and the dielectric is exactly constant, then the cable will be constant. If the conductors are randomly spaced or the dielectric changes along the cable, then the impedance will also vary along the cable.

A TDR sends electrical pulses down the cable and samples the reflected energy. Any impedance change will cause some energy to reflect back toward the TDR and will be displayed. How much the impedance changes determines the amplitude of the reflection.



Many TDRs have selectable pulse width settings. The larger the pulse width, the more energy is transmitted and therefore the further the signal will travel down the cable. Pulse widths may include 2 nsec, 10 nsec, 100 nsec, 1000 nsec, 2000 nsec, and 4000 nsec. A TDR may contain only one or all of the pulse width settings.

NOTE: Even when testing very long lengths of cable, always start the fault finding procedure in the shortest pulse width available, as the fault may be only a short distance away. If the fault is not located, switch to the next larger pulse width and retest. Keep switching to the next larger pulse until the fault is located.

Sometimes larger pulse widths are helpful even for locating faults that are relatively dose. If the fault is very small, the signal strength of a small pulse may not be enough to travel down the cable, " see" the fault, and travel back. The attenuation of the cable combined with the small reflection of the partial fault can make it difficult to detect. A larger pulse width would transmit more energy down the cable, making it easier to see the small fault.


The pulse generated by the TDR takes a certain amount of time and thus distance to launch. This distance is known as the blind spot. The length of the blind spot varies with the pulse width. The larger the pulse width, the larger the blind spot.

It is more difficult to locate a fault contained within the blind spot. If a fault is suspected within the first few feet of cable, it is advisable to add a length of cable between the TDR and the cable being tested. Any faults that may have been hidden in the blind spot can now easily be located. When adding a length of cable to eliminate the blind spot, remember the TDR is also reading the length of this jumper cable. The length of the jumper must be subtracted from the cable when measuring from the point of connection.

It is best if the jumper cable is the same impedance as the cable under test. The quality of the connection is an important factor regardless of the type of connection or jumper being used.


The TDR is an extremely accurate instrument. However, variables in the cable itself sometimes cause errors in distance measurements. One way to minimize error is to use the correct Velocity of Propagation (VOP) of the cable under test. The VOP is a specification of the cable indicating the speed at which a signal travels down the cable. Different cables have different VOPs. In order to assure the most accurate distance measurements, the cable VOP must be determined.

VOP Defined: The speed of light in a vacuum is 186,400 miles per second. This speed is represented by the number 1 (100%). All other signals are slower. A cable with a VOP of .85 would transmit a signal at 85% of the speed of light. A twisted pair cable, which typically has a lower VOP (such as .65), can transmit a signal at 65% of the speed of light.

The VOP number of a cable is determined by the dielectric material that separates the two conductors . In a coaxial cable, the foam separating the center conductor and the outer sheath is the material determining the VOP. In twisted pair, the VOP number is determined by the spacing between the plastic.

Knowing the VOP of a cable is the most important factor when using a TDR for fault finding. By entering the correct VOP, the instrument is calibrated to the particular cable. Typically, the VOP of the cable under test will be listed in the cable manufacturer's catalog or specification sheet. If not, simply measure a length of good cable (no faults) and change the TDR's VOP setting until the display shows the same distance reading as the measured length. The VOP of a cable can change with temperature and age. It can also vary from one manufacturing run to another. Even new cable can vary as much as +/- 3%.

One might think the variations in VOP would make it almost impossible to locate a fault accurately. Fortunately, there are ways to minimize the error in the VOP when testing a faulted cable, resulting in very accurate distance measurements. These techniques do not work when testing or measuring good (no fault) cable.

The most common technique used to reduce VOP error is to test the faulty cable from both ends. The procedure is as follows:

Determine the path of the cable. With a Measuring wheel or tape, measure the exact length of the cable being tested. Set the VOP according to the manufacturers specifications, test the cable from one end, and record the distance reading. Next, using the same VOP setting, test from the opposite end of the cable and record. If the sum of the readings is the exact length of the cable that was measured, the VOP is correct and the fault has been located.

If the sum of the two readings is more than the measured distance, reduce the VOP setting and re-test. If the sum of the two readings is less than the measured distance, increase the VOP setting. In this case, the operator must also consider the possibility of two faults.

The same result can be obtained mathematically. Take the actual cable length and divide by the sum of the two TDR readings obtained by the tests from each end . This gives the adjustment factor. Then multiply each of the TDR readings by the adjustment factor. This result will be the corrected length readings.

A partial listing of cable types and their Velocity of Propagation.


19 AWG Gel-Filled 68
22 AWG Gel-Filled 66
24 AWG Gel-Filled 62
26 AWG Gel-Filled 60
19 AWG AIR 72
22 AWG AIR 67
24 AWG AIR 66
26 AWG AIR 64
Polyethylene 66
Polypropylene 66
Teflon 69
PIC 67
Pulp 72

BeldenFoam 78S-82
Solid 66
Comm/Scope (F) 82
QR 88
Times Fiber RG-59 93
T4,6,10,TR+ 87
TX, TX10 89
Dynafoam 90
Trilogy (F) 83
CapScan FOAM S2
CC SS 88
CZ Labs FOAM 82
General Cable RG-59 82
MC2 93
Scientific AtlantaRG-59 81
Trunk 87
UTP 26 64
Thinnet 66-70
Ethernet 77
Token Ring 78
Arcnet 84
Twinaxial AIR 80
Twinaxial 71
Appletalk 68
Type 1 64
Type 2 66
Type 3 70
Type 4 72
Type 5 76
Type 6 78
Type 7 82
Type 8 84
Type 9 82
FHJI-50 1/4" 79
FSJI-50 1/4" 78
FSJ4-50B 1/2" 81
LDF2-50 3/8" 88
LDF4-50A 1/2" 80
LDF4-75 1/2" 88
LDF5-50A 7/8" 89
LDF7-50 1 5/8" 88
FT4-50 1/2" 85
FT5-50 7/8" 89
HJ4-50 1/2" 91
HJ5-50 7/8" 92
HJ5-75 7/8" 90
HJ7-50A 1 5/8" 92
HJS-50B 3" 93
HJ11-50 4" 92
HJ9-50 5" 93
FLC12-50J 1/2" 88
FLC78-50J 7/8" 88
FCC 38-50J 3/8" 81
FLC 12-50J 1/2" 88
FLC 78-50J 7/8" 88
FLC 158-50J 1 5/8" 88
920213 7/8" 99
920214 1 5/8" 99
HCC12-50J 1/2" 91
HCC7S-50J 7/8" 91
HCC15S-50J 1 5/8" 95
HCC300-50J 3" 96
HCC312-50J 3 1/2" 96
HF41/2CU24 4 1/2" 97

| TDR Principles of Operation | Usage Techniques | Waveform Analysis |
| General | CATV | Telephone | Broadcast | Cellular | 2-Way Radio | Power | LAN/WAN |
| Dual Twisted Pair and Coax TDR | Dual Twisted Pair TDR | Coax TDR | Basic Numeric TDR |

Advanced TSCM Signals Detection and Analysis
TSCM - Sweeping the Spectrum for Eavesdropping Devices

| Home | What is TSCM | Types of Bugs | Warning Signs You're Bugged |
| How To Behave if Bugged | TSCM Threat Levels | How To Engage a TSCM Firm |
| Qualifications | TSCM Protocol | Bug Frequencies | Phone Taps and Bugging |
| Signal Analysis | TDR Analysis | TDR Tutorial | Wiretapping | Training | Tools |
| Equipment | OSC-5000 | Kaiser | Riser Bond | Avcom | Search Rcvrs |
| Outside Links | Recommended TSCM Books | TSCM Reference Library |
| Recommended U.S. TSCM Firms | TSCM-L Mailing List |


Copyright ©2002, Granite Island Group